p. 36. Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech, eds. They held that it was impossible to obtain knowledge of metaphysical nature or ascertain the truth value of philosophical propositions;[83] and even if knowledge was possible, it was useless and disadvantageous for final salvation. In the Meiji period (1868–1912), the modernist Meirokusha (Meiji 6, formed in 1874) intellectual society promoted European enlightenment thought. When the Communist Party of China took over the reign, previous schools of thought such as Taoism and Confucianism (except Legalism) were denounced as backward, and later purged during the violence of the Cultural Revolution which saw many Taoist and Buddhist temples and institutions destroyed. Hengy Chye Kiang 1999. p.v44. Sikhism is an Indian religion developed by Guru Nanak (1469–1539) in the Punjab region during the Mughal Era. By V.S. Eastern philosophy is quite different from the traditional outlook upon the world and life. They were seen as sophists who specialized in refutation without propagating any positive doctrine of their own. Since the 'discovery' of eastern philosophy by western explorers and scholars in the 18th and 19th centuries CE, there has been an arbitrary division maintained, especially in colleges and universities, between 'western philosophy' and 'eastern philosophy' as though these two systems present radically different views of the world. It can be argued that Persian, Arabic and Jewish philosophies are much closer in nature to Western philosophy than Eastern, and the geographical and historical links are much closer. [74] The primary texts of Cārvāka, like the Barhaspatya sutras (c. 600 BCE) have been lost. Key New Confucians of the first generation are Xiong Shili and Fung Youlan. The contribution of the Jains in the development of Indian philosophy has been significant. EASTERN PHILOSOPHY sna.syednomanali@gmail.com 2. [35][36], There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Cārvāka. Japan's rapid modernization was partly aided by the early study of western science (known as Rangaku) during the Edo Period (1603–1868). Naravane. As motivation for his theory, Mozi brought in the Will of Heaven, but rather than being religious his philosophy parallels utilitarianism. East Asian philosophical thought began in Ancient China, and Chinese philosophy begins during the Western Zhou Dynasty and the following periods after its fall when the "Hundred Schools of Thought" flourished (6th century to 221 BCE). Buddhist Philosophy of Language in India: Jnanasrimitra on Exclusion. It started developing from the Song Dynasty and was nearly completed in late Ming Dynasty. De directe bevrijdingsweg, Cothen: Uitgeverij Juwelenschip, Modern Indian Thought. Eastern and Western philosophy published 12-1-2014 Here I start a series on differences and similarities between Eastern and Western philosophy, and my position in that. Prem Pahlajrai, Asian Languages and Literature, University of Washington, http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/hilltopreview/vol4/iss1/6, https://www.academia.edu/24999390/Persistent_Misconceptions_about_Chinese_Legalism_, https://books.google.com/books?id=TKowRrrz5BIC&pg=PA68, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-legalism/, http://www.philosophy.hku.hk/ch/Shen%20Bu%20Hai.htm, http://www.philosophy.hku.hk/ch/Lord%20Shang.htm, https://books.google.com/books?id=BIgS4p8NykYC&pg=PA44, https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/neo-daoism/, "Schopenhauer's Initial Encounter with Indian Thought", China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summit, Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia, China–Japan–Korea Friendship Athletic Meeting, Association of East Asian Research Universities, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (CCASG / GCC), Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eastern_philosophy&oldid=992849057, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2015, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Articles needing additional references from January 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 12:45. Stay in touch Contact Info. In Tibet, the Indian tradition continued to be developed under the work of thinkers like Sakya Pandita, Tsongkhapa, and Ju Mipham. Important Indian philosophical concepts include dharma, karma, samsara, moksha, and ahimsa. Vaiśeṣika is a naturalist school of atomism, which accepts only two sources of knowledge, perception, and inference. [55] Mīmāṃsā is also mainly atheistic, holding that the evidence for the existence of God is insufficient and that the Gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the names, mantras and their power. [34], The principal Indian philosophical schools are classified as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on one of three alternate criteria: whether it believes the Vedas are a valid source of knowledge; whether the school believes in the premises of Brahman and Atman; and whether the school believes in afterlife and Devas. Confucianism (Kǒngjiào — "Confucius' doctrine"), also known as "Ruism" (Rújiào — "doctrine of the scholars"), is a Chinese philosophical system with ritual, moral, and religious applications. Karl Potter (2002), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass. As shown by the Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra (c. 14th century CE), Sāmkhya continued to develop throughout the medieval period. [104] Other influential classical Confucian philosophers include Mencius and Xun Kuang who famously disagreed on the innate moral nature of humans. New Confucianism is a traditionalist revival of Confucian thought in China beginning in the 20th-century Republican China which is also associated with New Conservatism. [116] Taoism tends to emphasize virtues such as wu wei (effortless action), ziran (naturalness), pu (simplicity), and spontaneity while placing less emphasis on norms and ritual (as opposed to Confucianism). 2005. Jainism is essentially a transtheistic religion of ancient India. History and Doctrines of the Ājīvikas (2nd ed.). Arvind-pal Singh Mandair (2014). Some have claimed that there is also a definite eastern element within Heidegger's philosophy. In Hsu, Mutsu; Chen, Jinhua; Meeks, Lori. Confucianism focuses on humanistic values like familial and social harmony, filial piety (孝, xiào), Rén (仁, "benevolence" or "humaneness") and Lǐ (禮/礼) which is a system of ritual norms that determines how a person should act to be in harmony with the law of Heaven. It generally refers to the philosophical investigations that developed among various Buddhist schools in India and later spread throughout Asia through the silk road. [141], According to the British philosopher Victoria S. Harrison, the category of "Eastern philosophy", and similarly "Asian philosophy" and "Oriental philosophy" is a product of 19th-century Western scholarship and did not exist in East Asia or India. Six Ideas from Eastern Philosophy. The moral guide must then promote and encourage social behaviors that maximize the general benefit. Cities of Aristocrats and Bureaucrats. Following the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 and the end of the Qing Dynasty, the May Fourth Movement sought to completely abolish the old imperial institutions and practices of China (such as the old civil service system). [27], Some of the earliest surviving philosophical texts are the Upanishads of the later Vedic period (1000–500 BCE). Mozi was against Confucian ritualism, instead emphasizing pragmatic survival through farming, fortification, and statecraft. exemplified by the philosophy of Advaita Vedanta. "Some Remarks on the Usage of Renjian Fojiao 人間佛教 and the Contribution of Venerable Yinshun to Chinese Buddhist Modernism". Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Indian philosophy (including Hindu philosophy, Jain philosophy, Buddhist philosophy, and Sikh philosophy), Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy which are dominant in East and Southeast Asia. [130] A key figure of this movement is Motoori Norinaga (1730–1801), who argued that the essence of classic Japanese literature and culture was a sense called mono no aware ("sorrow at evanescence").[131]. [101][102] This period was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments and saw the rise of the major Chinese philosophical schools (Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism) as well as numerous less influential schools (Mohism, School of Names, School of Yin Yang). John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press. Chad Hansen, University of Hong Kong. Followers of these two authors are often grouped together under the term Integral thought. p. 6. Website: http://www.ju.edu.jo; Telephone : +962 6 5355000 ext: 22563; elearninghelp.staff@ju.edu.jo; elearninghelp.student@ju.edu.jo [28][29][30] Indian philosophy also covered topics such as political philosophy as seen in the Arthashastra c. 4th century BCE and the philosophy of love as seen in the Kama Sutra. The BIGGEST single difference is this: Eastern philosophy is descriptive and (by the way) not well differentiated from Eastern religion; it is maybe just the same thing, from a slightly more cerebral point of view. Yao, Xinzhong (2000). 1,700–1,050 BCE). Students' Britannica India (2000), Volume 4, Encyclopædia Britannica, Hiltebeitel, Alf (2007), Hinduism. Chan, Alan, "Neo-Daoism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed. Therefore, they sought to investigate the sources of correct knowledge or epistemology. Their goal was to achieve increased order, security, and stability. [42] Elements of proto-Samkhya ideas can however be traced back to the period of the early Upanishads. This cosmological unity is the main point in the journey of life as it goes towards the eternal realities. [77] The Ājīvika school is known for its Niyati doctrine of absolute determinism (fate), the premise that there is no free will, that everything that has happened, is happening and will happen is entirely preordained and a function of cosmic principles. The attainment of immortality through external alchemy (waidan) and internal alchemy (neidan) was an important goal for many Taoists historically. Very broadly speaking, according to some commentators, Western society strives to find and prove "the truth", while Eastern society accepts the truth as given and is more interested in finding the balance. The last three categories are defined as budhyapekṣam (product of intellectual discrimination) and they are logical categories. Cambridge University Press. [85] Because ignorance of the true nature of things is considered one of the roots of suffering, Buddhist thinkers concerned themselves with philosophical questions related to epistemology and the use of reason. [108] Largely ignoring morality or idealized views of how society should be, they focused on the pragmatic government through the power of the autocrat and state. Earl, David Margarey, Emperor and Nation in Japan, Political Thinkers of the Tokugawa Period, University of Washington Press, 1964, pp. (New York: Asia Publishing House, 1964. pp. Arguments of an Implicit Debate", Ouyang Min. However, there are other methods of classification; Vidyaranya for instance identifies sixteen schools of Hindu Indian philosophy by including those that belong to the Śaiva and Raseśvara traditions. Buddhist philosophy begins with the thought of Gautama Buddha (fl. Confucianism(儒學), developed around the teachings of Confucius(孔子) and is based on a set of Chinese classic texts. "[90] Forces which influenced modernists like Dhammapala and Yin Shun included Enlightenment values and Western Science. AIMS OF PHILOSOPHY • Cosmological unity • Behavioral ethics • Relationship with religion • Social integration • Intuition over intellect • Collectivism • Self improvement • Find inner self • Find balance in human life • Spiritual approach Bertrand Russell announces his purpose, which is to show philosophy is part of the fabric of social and political life. James Lochtefeld, "Ajivika", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. Sāmkhya epistemology accepts three of six pramanas (proofs) as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge; pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference) and śabda (word/testimony of reliable sources). Analayo (2004), Satipaṭṭhāna: The Direct Path to Realization. 44 Issue 3, pp. In China, new developments were led by thinkers such as Xuangzang who authored new works on Yogacara, Zhiyi who founded the Tiantai school and developed a new theory of Madhyamaka and Guifeng Zongmi who wrote on Huayan and Zen. Satara: Lokayat Prakashan. [95] They were also influenced by Western ideas. [54] They primarily held that the purpose of language was to correctly prescribe proper actions, rituals, and correct dharma (duty or virtue). Foreword by ttumayun Kabir.). [127] There were also attempts to incorporate Western ideas of democracy, and republicanism into Chinese political philosophy, notably by Sun Yat-Sen (1866–1925) at the beginning of the 20th century. The most important trend in Japanese Buddhist thought after the formation of the Kyoto school is Critical Buddhism, which argues against several Mahayana concepts such as Buddha-nature and original enlightenment. These religio-philosophical traditions were later grouped under the label Hinduism. Legalism (pinyin: Fǎjiā; school of "methods" or "standards")[107] was a philosophical tradition which focused on laws, realpolitik, and bureaucratic management. Eastern Philosophy is expansive, beginning as far back as 5,000 years ago. While the specific elements of the various Eastern philosophies differ dramatically, many share a specific conception of God and the cosmos. ; Gough, A.E. Under the term "the East" we should understand primarily Asia, including such countries as China, India and Japan. Buddhism mostly disappeared from India after the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, surviving in the Himalayan regions and south India. ), 2. (1882). Indeed, in ancient times, the word "philosophy" was used to mean ALL intellectual endeavors, and, as late as the 17th Century, the natural sciences (physics, astronomy, biology) were still referred to as branches of "natural philosophy" . He anticipated that the Upanishads (primary Hindu scriptures) would have a much greater influence in the West than they have had. [98] Through the work of Indians like Vivekananda as well as westerners such as the proponents of the Theosophical society, modern Hindu thought also influenced western culture. [112] Shen's successor Han Fei (c. 280–233 BCE) synthesized the thought of the other Legalists in his eponymous text, the Han Feizi, one of the most influential Legalist texts which was used by successive Chinese statesmen and rulers as a guide for statesmanship and bureaucratic organization of the imperial state.[113][114]. Japanese Buddhist philosophy was influenced by the work of the Kyoto School which drew from western philosophers (especially German philosophy) and Buddhist thought and included Kitaro Nishida, Keiji Nishitani, Hajime Tanabe, and Masao Abe. Lord Shang. Hägglund: Death&Meaning; Why Does The World Exist? Mo also advocated impartial meritocracy in government which should be based on talent, not blood relations. In the modern era, there have been many attempts to integrate Western and Eastern philosophical traditions. The Kural literature of c. 1st century BCE, written by the Tamil poet-philosopher Valluvar, is believed by many scholars to be based on Jain philosophies. Eastern Philosophy: The Basics is an essential introduction to major Indian and Chinese philosophies, both past and present.Exploring familiar metaphysical and ethical questions from the perspectives offered by a range of eastern philosophies, including Confucianism, Daoism, the main Buddhist and Hindu philosophical schools, as well as Jainism, this book covers key … [75], Ājīvika was founded by Makkhali Gosala, it was a Śramaṇa movement and a major rival of early Buddhism and Jainism. The influence of Marxism on modern Chinese political thought is vast, especially through the work of Mao Zedong, the most famous thinker of Chinese Marxist Philosophy. [121] Thinkers like He Yan and Wang Bi focused on the deep nature of Tao, which they saw as being best exemplified by the term "Wu" (nothingness, non-being, negativity). Gary Tartakov (2003). [70] Cārvāka philosophers like Brihaspati were extremely critical of other schools of philosophy of the time. ), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. pp. Both western and eastern philosophy has lots of simliarities too. Carine Defoort, herself a specialist in Chinese thought, has offered support for such a "family" view of philosophy,[138] while Rein Raud has presented an argument[139] against it and offered a more flexible definition of philosophy that would include both Western and Asian thought on equal terms. Buddhist modernism refers to "forms of Buddhism that have emerged out of engagement with the dominant cultural and intellectual forces of modernity. Tauris. One was anti-traditional and promoted Western learning and ideas. Sāmkhya sources argue that the universe consists of two realities, puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter). Eastern philosophy helps to calmly and serenely ease our anxieties to help us get through these things through soothing imagery, poetic words and encouraging us to simply let ourselves run our course with nature. Ancient Babylonian philosophy can be considered Eastern in some ways, but it almost certainly had a strong influence on Greek, particularly Hellenistic, philosophy. [76], Original scriptures of the Ājīvika school of philosophy may once have existed, but these are currently unavailable and probably lost. [66] It has also been called a model of philosophical liberalism for its insistence that truth is relative and multifaceted and for its willingness to accommodate all possible view-points of the rival philosophies. [93][94] Key concepts include Simran, Sewa, the Three Pillars of Sikhism, and the Five Thieves. Sāmkhya is a dualist philosophical tradition based on the Samkhyakarika (c. 320–540 CE),[41] while the Yoga school was a closely related tradition emphasizing meditation and liberation whose major text is the Yoga sutras (c. 400 CE). [124], Modern Chinese thought is generally seen as being rooted in Classical Confucianism (Jingxue), Neo-Confucianism (Lixue), Buddhism, Daoism, and Xixue (“Western Learning” which arose during the late Ming Dynasty). Issues of comparative philosophy (pp. Oxford University Press. After the disappearance of Buddhism from India, these philosophical traditions continued to develop in the Tibetan Buddhist, East Asian Buddhist, and Theravada Buddhist traditions. For exaxmple i have learnt that Fa (standards: laws) and meaning changes in Chinese philosophy. (2001). It is an attractive alternative to western philosophy if we ever pine for a little bit of calm amongst the chaos of our lives. Philosophy East & West. Meirokusha philosophers like Mori Arinori, Nishi Amane, and Fukuzawa Yukichi sought ways to combine Western ideas with Japanese culture and values. However, Schopenhauer was working with heavily flawed early translations (and sometimes second-degree translations), and many feel that he may not necessarily have accurately grasped the Eastern philosophies which interested him.[134]. [110] A key figure of this school was administrator and political philosopher Shen Buhai (c. 400–337 BCE). It has often been described as an ascetic movement for its strong emphasis on self-control, austerities, and renunciation. Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam, [1] and Indian philosophy (including Buddhist philosophy) which are dominant in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet and Mongolia. [69] While Jainism traces its philosophy from teachings of Mahavira and other Tirthankaras, various Jain philosophers from Kundakunda and Umasvati in ancient times to Yasovijaya and Shrimad Rajchandra in recent times have contributed to Indian philosophical discourse in uniquely Jain ways. There is still a widespread inclination to think that there is an unbridgeable chasm between Eastern and Western philosophy. The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [135] For the most part, this is not made explicit within Heidegger's philosophy, apart from in the dialogue between a Japanese and inquirer. Later Vaiśeṣikas (Śrīdhara and Udayana and Śivāditya) added one more category abhava (non-existence). [77][78] Ājīvika considered the karma doctrine as a fallacy. Later Buddhist philosophical traditions developed complex phenomenological psychologies termed 'Abhidharma'. Xuanxue ("deep learning", also "Neo-Taoism") was a major philosophical movement influenced by Confucian scholarship, which focused on the interpretation of the Yijing, Daodejing, and Zhuangzi and which flourished during the third to sixth centuries CE. The study (of modern physics) produces insights into the nature of reality very similar to those produced by the study of eastern philosophy. (2012), "Comparative Religion as Cultural Combat: Occidentalism and Relativism in Rajiv Malhotra's Being Different", International Journal of Hindu Studies, 16 (3): 335–348. Salunkhe, AH (2009). [132] The idea states that an individual is "the master of his destiny"[133] and that the North Korean masses are to act as the "masters of the revolution and construction".[133]. [67] Jainism strongly upholds the individualistic nature of the soul and personal responsibility for one's decisions, and that self-reliance and individual efforts alone are responsible for one's liberation.[68]. The administrative thought of Mohism was later absorbed by Legalism, their ethics absorbed into Confucianism and its books were also merged into the Taoist canon, as Mohism all but disappeared as an independent school after the Qin dynasty era. Exploring familiar metaphysical and ethical questions from the perspectives of different Eastern philosophies, including Confucianism, Daoism, and strands of Buddhism and Hinduism, this book covers key figures, issues, methods and concepts. [103] The tradition developed around the teachings of Confucius (Kǒng Fūzǐ, 孔夫子, "Master Kong", 551–479 BCE) who saw himself as transmitting the values and theology of the ancestors before him. The modern period saw the rise of Buddhist modernism and Humanistic Buddhism under Western influences and the development of Western Buddhism with influences from modern psychology and Western philosophy. [71] They declared the Vedas to be incoherent rhapsodies invented by humans whose only usefulness was to provide a livelihood to priests. In Hindu history, the distinction of the six orthodox schools was current in the Gupta period "golden age" of Hinduism. Ethics is based on behavior, and … History and Doctrines of the Ājīvikas (2nd ed.). This tradition contributed to what has been called an "epistemological turn" in Indian philosophy. Hinduism is a categorization of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs.